Enabling Affordable Decarbonization
Decarbonisation is urgently needed to prevent humanity from exceeding tipping points in the climate system. The graph below  shows the worldwide primary energy consumption [in Exajoules] from 1995 to 2020. The financial crisis (2009) and the COVID pandemic (2020) both caused a temporary reduction, but in overall there is a clear upward trend in the worldwide need for energy.Read more
Equinor Ventures-led consortium invests €30 million in electricity storage company Elestor
Equinor Ventures-led consortium invests €30 million in electricity storage company ElestorRead more
The hydrogen-bromine flow battery for a large scale integration of variable renewable electricity: State-of-the-art review
Y.A. Hugo, W. Kout, G. Dalessi
Elestor B.V., Utrechtseweg 310-H40, 6812 AR Arnhem, The Netherlands
This article presents a state-of-the-art review of the hydrogen-bromine battery technology. The review aims to elaborate on the following topics: (1) the hydrogen-bromine flow battery, (2) the current status of technical developments on short-term and long-term cycling, and (3) the future direction for technology development.
Performance mapping of cation exchange membranes for hydrogen-bromine ﬂow batteries for energy storage
Yohanes Antonius Hugo a, b, Wiebrand Kout b, Antoni Forner-Cuenca a, Zandrie Borneman a, c, Kitty Nijmeijer a, c, *
a Membrane Materials and Processes, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven, the Netherlands
b Elestor B.V., 6827 AV Arnhem, the Netherlands
c Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research (DIFFER), P.O. Box 6336, 5600 HH Eindhoven, the Netherlands
⁎ Corresponding author. E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org (K. Nijmeijer).
Electricity storage is essential for the transition to sustainable energy sources. Hydrogen-bromine ﬂow batteries (HBFBs) are promising cost-eﬀective energy storage systems. In HBFBs, proton exchange membranes are required to separate the two reactive materials, enabling proton transport for charge balancing. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of the key properties and an experimental performance map of cation exchange membranes for HBFBs. Our study shows that membrane water uptake is an important property due to its strong correlation with membrane resistance and bromide species crossover. Long chain perﬂuorosulfonic acid (LC PFSA) membranes are shown to have a better power density–crossover tradeoﬀ and a higher stability than other types of functionalized membranes. The good power density-crossover tradeoﬀ of LC PFSA membranes is the result of the high level of separation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains in the membrane, leading to well-connected ionic pathways for proton transport. Reinforcement of long chain LC PFSA membranes further improves their tradeoﬀ because it mechanically constrains the swelling (lower water uptake), resulting in a lower crossover but a similar peak power density. Consequently, reinforced LC PFSA membranes are the most promising option for HBFBs.
The effect of cations on the proton transport of PFSA membranes used in hydrogen-bromine flow batteries: observations and mitigation solutions.
Natalia Mazur1*, Yohanes Antonius Hugo1,, Wiebrand Kout1, Friso Sikkema1, Ran Elazari2, Ronny Costi2
1 Elestor B.V., Arnhem 6812 AR, The Netherlands
2 ICL Industrial Products R&D, Beer Sheva, Israel
In search for cheap, high capacity energy storage, hydrogen-bromine flow batteries (HBFBs) are emerging as strong contenders , however, the volatility of the electrolyte and the associated risks must be managed. Bromine complexing agents (BCAs) are used as additives to the electrolyte, which have the ability to capture Br-ions and Br2 thus decreasing the bromine vapour pressure . The BCA-HBr-Br2 complex separates as a high density oily layer.