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A close-up of Elestor's advanced flow battery technology

Scalability

Elestor’s flow battery is incredibly flexible and easy to scale. The materials used, hydrogen and bromine, are abundant wherever you are in the world. Power can be increased simply by installing additional membrane stacks. Capacity can be increased by expanding the electrolyte and hydrogen tanks. The battery can even be integrated with existing or future hydrogen pipeline networks, removing the need for a hydrogen tank altogether.

Scalability matters more than most other factors when it comes to new technologies. Rapid application of groundbreaking solutions is important because their impact can help change the world. Our flow battery technology has the potential to dramatically speed up the energy transition, which means we can play an active role in revolutionizing the world’s energy system.

Scalability is also important because so-called economy of scale, in combination with a fully automated assembly of membrane stacks, offers perhaps the best way to continuously pressing costs lower. It is vital that clean energy solutions are both affordable and price competitive relative to the old-world fossil fuel technologies they are replacing.

Investors obviously value scalability for the reasons mentioned, but to them it is an attribute that also adds value, in that rapid scaling generally speeds up and increases the financial return on their investments.

Publications

The hydrogen-bromine flow battery for a large scale integration of variable renewable electricity: State-of-the-art review

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Y.A. Hugo, W. Kout, G. Dalessi

Elestor B.V., Utrechtseweg 310-H40, 6812 AR Arnhem, The Netherlands

Abstract

This article presents a state-of-the-art review of the hydrogen-bromine battery technology. The review aims to elaborate on the following topics: (1) the hydrogen-bromine flow battery, (2) the current status of technical developments on short-term and long-term cycling, and (3) the future direction for technology development.

Performance mapping of cation exchange membranes for hydrogen-bromine flow batteries for energy storage

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Yohanes Antonius Hugo a, b, Wiebrand Kout b, Antoni Forner-Cuenca a, Zandrie Borneman a, c, Kitty Nijmeijer a, c, *
a Membrane Materials and Processes, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven, the Netherlands
b Elestor B.V., 6827 AV Arnhem, the Netherlands
c Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research (DIFFER), P.O. Box 6336, 5600 HH Eindhoven, the Netherlands
⁎ Corresponding author. E-mail address: d.c.nijmeijer@tue.nl (K. Nijmeijer).


Abstract

Electricity storage is essential for the transition to sustainable energy sources. Hydrogen-bromine flow batteries (HBFBs) are promising cost-effective energy storage systems. In HBFBs, proton exchange membranes are required to separate the two reactive materials, enabling proton transport for charge balancing. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of the key properties and an experimental performance map of cation exchange membranes for HBFBs. Our study shows that membrane water uptake is an important property due to its strong correlation with membrane resistance and bromide species crossover. Long chain perfluorosulfonic acid (LC PFSA) membranes are shown to have a better power density–crossover tradeoff and a higher stability than other types of functionalized membranes. The good power density-crossover tradeoff of LC PFSA membranes is the result of the high level of separation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains in the membrane, leading to well-connected ionic pathways for proton transport. Reinforcement of long chain LC PFSA membranes further improves their tradeoff because it mechanically constrains the swelling (lower water uptake), resulting in a lower crossover but a similar peak power density. Consequently, reinforced LC PFSA membranes are the most promising option for HBFBs.

The effect of cations on the proton transport of PFSA membranes used in hydrogen-bromine flow batteries: observations and mitigation solutions.

read moreless

Natalia Mazur1*, Yohanes Antonius Hugo1,, Wiebrand Kout1, Friso Sikkema1, Ran Elazari2, Ronny Costi2
1 Elestor B.V., Arnhem 6812 AR, The Netherlands
2 ICL Industrial Products R&D, Beer Sheva, Israel
*natalia.mazur@elestor.nl

Abstract

In search for cheap, high capacity energy storage, hydrogen-bromine flow batteries (HBFBs) are emerging as strong contenders [1], however, the volatility of the electrolyte and the associated risks must be managed. Bromine complexing agents (BCAs) are used as additives to the electrolyte, which have the ability to capture Br-ions and Br2 thus decreasing the bromine vapour pressure [1]. The BCA-HBr-Br2 complex separates as a high density oily layer.

Publications

The hydrogen-bromine flow battery for a large scale integration of variable renewable electricity: State-of-the-art review

read moreless

Y.A. Hugo, W. Kout, G. Dalessi

Elestor B.V., Utrechtseweg 310-H40, 6812 AR Arnhem, The Netherlands

Abstract

This article presents a state-of-the-art review of the hydrogen-bromine battery technology. The review aims to elaborate on the following topics: (1) the hydrogen-bromine flow battery, (2) the current status of technical developments on short-term and long-term cycling, and (3) the future direction for technology development.

Performance mapping of cation exchange membranes for hydrogen-bromine flow batteries for energy storage

read moreless

Yohanes Antonius Hugo a, b, Wiebrand Kout b, Antoni Forner-Cuenca a, Zandrie Borneman a, c, Kitty Nijmeijer a, c, *
a Membrane Materials and Processes, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven, the Netherlands
b Elestor B.V., 6827 AV Arnhem, the Netherlands
c Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research (DIFFER), P.O. Box 6336, 5600 HH Eindhoven, the Netherlands
⁎ Corresponding author. E-mail address: d.c.nijmeijer@tue.nl (K. Nijmeijer).


Abstract

Electricity storage is essential for the transition to sustainable energy sources. Hydrogen-bromine flow batteries (HBFBs) are promising cost-effective energy storage systems. In HBFBs, proton exchange membranes are required to separate the two reactive materials, enabling proton transport for charge balancing. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of the key properties and an experimental performance map of cation exchange membranes for HBFBs. Our study shows that membrane water uptake is an important property due to its strong correlation with membrane resistance and bromide species crossover. Long chain perfluorosulfonic acid (LC PFSA) membranes are shown to have a better power density–crossover tradeoff and a higher stability than other types of functionalized membranes. The good power density-crossover tradeoff of LC PFSA membranes is the result of the high level of separation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains in the membrane, leading to well-connected ionic pathways for proton transport. Reinforcement of long chain LC PFSA membranes further improves their tradeoff because it mechanically constrains the swelling (lower water uptake), resulting in a lower crossover but a similar peak power density. Consequently, reinforced LC PFSA membranes are the most promising option for HBFBs.

The effect of cations on the proton transport of PFSA membranes used in hydrogen-bromine flow batteries: observations and mitigation solutions.

read moreless

Natalia Mazur1*, Yohanes Antonius Hugo1,, Wiebrand Kout1, Friso Sikkema1, Ran Elazari2, Ronny Costi2
1 Elestor B.V., Arnhem 6812 AR, The Netherlands
2 ICL Industrial Products R&D, Beer Sheva, Israel
*natalia.mazur@elestor.nl

Abstract

In search for cheap, high capacity energy storage, hydrogen-bromine flow batteries (HBFBs) are emerging as strong contenders [1], however, the volatility of the electrolyte and the associated risks must be managed. Bromine complexing agents (BCAs) are used as additives to the electrolyte, which have the ability to capture Br-ions and Br2 thus decreasing the bromine vapour pressure [1]. The BCA-HBr-Br2 complex separates as a high density oily layer.

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